William J. Turkel and Adam Crymble

In this lesson, you will learn the Python commands needed to implement the second part of the algorithm begun in the lesson 'From HTML to a List of Words (part 1)'.

edited by

  • Miriam Posner

reviewed by

  • Jim Clifford

published

2012-07-17

modified

2012-07-17

difficulty

Medium

This lesson was written using Python v. 2.x. Code may not be compatible with newer versions of Python. “Python Introduction and Installation” provides instructions for how you can install Python 2.x alongside newer versions.

This lesson is part of a series. You might want to check out the previous lesson.

Contents

Lesson Goals

In this lesson, you will learn the Python commands needed to implement the second part of the algorithm begun in the From HTML to a List of Words (part 1). The first half of the algorithm gets the content of an HTML page and saves only the content betwee the first <p> and the last <br/> tags. The second half of the algorithm does the following:

Files Needed For This Lesson

If you do not have these files, you can download python-lessons2.zip, a (zip) file from the previous lesson.

Repeating and Testing in Python

The next stage in implementing the algorithm is to look at every character in the pageContents string, one at a time and decide whether the character belongs to HTML markup or to the content of the trial transcript. Before you can do this you’ll have to learn a few techniques for repeating tasks and for testing conditions.

Looping

Like many programming languages, Python includes a number of looping mechanisms. The one that you want to use in this case is called a for loop. The version below tells the interpreter to do something for each character in a string named pageContents. The variable char will contain each character from pageContents in succession. We gave char its name; it does not have any special significance and could have been named jingles or k if we had felt so inclined. You can use the colour-coding in Komodo Edit as a guideline for deciding if a word is a variable with a user-given name (such as ‘char’) or a Python-defined name that serves a specific purpose (such as ‘for’). It is usually a good idea to give variables names that provide information about what they contain. This will make it much easier to understand a program that you haven’t looked at for a while. With this in mind, ‘jingles’ is probably not a very good choice for a variable name in this case.

for char in pageContents:
    # do something with char

Branching

Next you need a way of testing the contents of a string, and choosing a course of action based on that test. Again, like many programming languages, Python includes a number of branching mechanisms. The one that you want to use here is called an if statement. The version below tests to see whether the string named char consists of a left angle bracket. As we mentioned earlier, indentation is important in Python. If code is indented, Python will execute it when the condition is true.

Note that Python uses a single equals sign (=) for assignment, that is for setting one thing equal to something else. In order to test for equality, use double equals signs (==) instead. Beginning programmers often confuse the two.

if char == '<':
    # do something

A more general form of the if statement allows you to specify what to do in the event that your test condition is false.

if char == '<':
    # do something
else:
    # do something different

In Python you have the option of doing further tests after the first one, by using an elif statement (which is shorthand for else if).

if char == '<':
    # do something
elif char == '>':
    # do another thing
else:
    # do something completely different

Use the Algorithm to Remove HTML Markup

You now know enough to implement the second part of the algorithm: removing all HTML tags. In this part of the algorithm we want to:

To do this, you will use a for loop to look at each successive character in the string. You will then use an if / elif statement to determine whether the character is part of HTML markup or part of the content, then append the content characters to the text string. How will we keep track of whether or not we’re inside a tag? We can use an integer variable, which will be 1 (true) if the current character is inside a tag and 0 (false) if it’s not (in the example below we have named the variable inside).

The stripTags Routine

Putting it all together, the final version of the routine is shown below. Note that we are expanding the stripTags function created above. Make sure you maintain the indentation as shown when you replace the old stripTags routine in obo.py with this new one.

Your routine may look slightly different and as long as it works that’s fine. If you’ve elected to experiment, it’s probably best to try our version as well to make sure that your program does what ours does.

# obo.py
def stripTags(pageContents):
    startLoc = pageContents.find("<p>")
    endLoc = pageContents.rfind("<br/>")

    pageContents = pageContents[startLoc:endLoc]

    inside = 0
    text = ''

    for char in pageContents:
        if char == '<':
            inside = 1
        elif (inside == 1 and char == '>'):
            inside = 0
        elif inside == 1:
            continue
        else:
            text += char

    return text

There are two new Python concepts in this new code: continue and return.

The Python continue statement tells the interpreter to jump back to the top of the enclosing loop. So if we are processing characters inside of a pair of angle brackets, we want to go get the next character in the pageContents string without adding anything to our text variable.

In our previous examples we have used print extensively. This outputs the result of our program to the screen for the user to read. Often, however, we wish to allow one part of the program to send information to another part. When a function finishes executing, it can return a value to the code which called it. If we were to call stripTags using another program, we would do so like this:

#understanding the Return statement

import obo

myText = "This is my <h1>HTML</h1> message"

theResult = obo.stripTags(myText)

By using return, we have been able to save the output of the stripTags function directly into a variable that we have called ‘theResult’, which we can then resume processing as needed using additional code.

Note that in the stripTags example from the start of this sub-section, the value that we want to return now is not pageContents, but rather the content which has had the HTML markup stripped out.

To test our new stripTags routine, you can run trial-content.py again. Since we’ve redefined stripTags, the trial-content.py program now does something different (and closer to what we want). Before you continue, make sure that you understand why the behaviour of trial-content.py would change when we only edited obo.py.

Python Lists

Now that you have the ability to extract raw text from web pages, you’re going to want to get the text in a form that is easy to process. So far, when you’ve needed to store information in your Python programs, you’ve usually used strings. There were a couple of exceptions, however. In the stripTags routine, you also made use of an integer named inside to store a 1 when you were processing a tag and a 0 when you weren’t. You can do mathematical operations on integers but you cannot store fractions or decimal numbers in integer variables.

inside = 1

And whenever you’ve needed to read from or write to a file, you’ve used a special file handle like f in the example below.

f = open('helloworld.txt','w')
f.write('hello world')
f.close()

One of the most useful types of object that Python provides, however, is the list, an ordered collection of other objects (including, potentially, other lists). Converting a string into a list of characters or words is straightforward. Type or copy the following program into your text editor to see two ways of achieving this. Save the file as string-to-list.py and execute it. Compare the two lists that are printed to the Command Output pane and see if you can figure out how the code works.

# string-to-list.py

# some strings
s1 = 'hello world'
s2 = 'howdy world'

# list of characters
charlist = []
for char in s1:
    charlist.append(char)
print(charlist)

# list of 'words'
wordlist = s2.split()
print(wordlist)

The first routine uses a for loop to step through each character in the string s1, and appends the character to the end of charlist. The second routine makes use of the split operation to break the string s2 apart wherever there is whitespace (spaces, tabs, carriage returns and similar characters). Actually, it is a bit of a simplification to refer to the objects in the second list as words. Try changing s2 in the above program to ‘howdy world!’ and running it again. What happened to the exclamation mark? Note, that you will have to save your changes before using Run Python again.

Given what you’ve learned so far, you can now open a URL, download the web page to a string, strip out the HTML and then split the text into a list of words. Try executing the following program.

#html-to-list1.py
import urllib2, obo

url = 'http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/print.jsp?div=t17800628-33'

response = urllib2.urlopen(url)
html = response.read()
text = obo.stripTags(html)
wordlist = text.split()

print(wordlist[0:120])

You should get something like the following.

['324.', '\xc2\xa0', 'BENJAMIN', 'BOWSEY', '(a', 'blackmoor', ')', 'was', 
'indicted', 'for', 'that', 'he', 'together', 'with', 'five', 'hundred', 
'other', 'persons', 'and', 'more,', 'did,', 'unlawfully,', 'riotously,', 
'and', 'tumultuously', 'assemble', 'on', 'the', '6th', 'of', 'June', 'to', 
'the', 'disturbance', 'of', 'the', 'public', 'peace', 'and', 'did', 'begin', 
'to', 'demolish', 'and', 'pull', 'down', 'the', 'dwelling', 'house', 'of', 
'\xc2\xa0', 'Richard', 'Akerman', ',', 'against', 'the', 'form', 'of', 
'the', 'statute,', '&amp;c.', '\xc2\xa0', 'ROSE', 'JENNINGS', ',', 'Esq.', 
'sworn.', 'Had', 'you', 'any', 'occasion', 'to', 'be', 'in', 'this', 'part', 
'of', 'the', 'town,', 'on', 'the', '6th', 'of', 'June', 'in', 'the', 
'evening?', '-', 'I', 'dined', 'with', 'my', 'brother', 'who', 'lives', 
'opposite', 'Mr.', "Akerman's", 'house.', 'They', 'attacked', 'Mr.', 
"Akerman's", 'house', 'precisely', 'at', 'seven', "o'clock;", 'they', 
'were', 'preceded', 'by', 'a', 'man', 'better', 'dressed', 'than', 'the', 
'rest,', 'who']

Simply having a list of words doesn’t buy you much yet. As human beings, we already have the ability to read. You’re getting much closer to a representation that your programs can process, however.

Suggested Reading

Code Syncing

To follow along with future lessons it is important that you have the right files and programs in your programming-historian directory. At the end of each chapter in this series you can download the programming-historian zip file to make sure you have the correct code.

Great! Now you're ready to move on to the next lesson .
About the authors

William J. Turkel is Professor of History at the University of Western Ontario.   Adam Crymble is a lecturer of digital history at the University of Hertfordshire.